The two types of charge recognized in the Aether Physics Model are the electrostatic charge and the electromagnetic charge. In modern physics only one type of charge is quantified. As a result of the two types of charges, we have successfully developed the electron binding energy equation, which accurately predicts the 1s orbital electron binding energies for all the atomic elements. Our white paper, "A New Foundation for Physics," explains the two types of charges in greater detail. Here we give a synopsis.

In modern physics charge has only one dimension. In the Aether Physics Model charge is distributed (charge squared).

The electrostatic charge is the same as elementary charge, except that it is represented as e^{2} instead of just e. The value of electrostatic charge in the APM is:

(1.1)

Strong nuclear charge is the product of angular momentum of a subatomic particle and the conductance of the Aether.

(1.2)

(1.3)

Strong charge, (or electromagnetic charge) is written as e_{emax}^{2 }for the electron, e_{pmax}^{2} for the proton and e_{nmax}^{2} for the neutron. Unlike the electrostatic charge, which is the same for both the electron and proton, the strong charge is different for each onn (subatomic particle) and is directly proportional to the onn's mass.

The angular momentum of an electron represents as Planck's constant:

The proportion of electrostatic charge to strong charge is equal to 8π times the fine structure of the onn.

(1.6)

The significance of this proportion is that it represents the "weak nuclear force" of the particle. Each particle has its own "weak nuclear force".

(1.7)

(1.8)

Equations 1.6 through 1.8 represent the unified charge equations for each onn. Taken together these equations are the basis for a mathematically correct Unified Force Theory. Electrostatic charge has one spin and is spherical, while electromagnetic charge has half spin and has steradian geometry.

The unified charge equations dictate a general geometry for the subatomic particles.

Figure 1 Subatomic Particle Geometry

The above graphic illustrates the two charges as they are related to each other and shows the proportion of their surfaces.

Electrostatic charge has the geometry of a sphere (small sphere in center of Figure 1) while the strong charge has the geometry of a toroid. Since strong charge belongs to the half spin subatomic particle, strong charge must multiply by two to be equal in spin to one spin electrostatic charge. And since electrostatic charge has a solid angle of one (spherical) electromagnetic charge must multiply by 4π to be equal in geometry.This is the meaning of the 8π geometrical constant, which also occurs in Einstein's simplified field equation for General Relativity.

The proportion of the electrostatic charge sphere (small sphere in center) to the electromagnetic charge sphere (large gray sphere) is alpha, the Fine Structure constant. The fine structure constant is the proportion of the one spin electrostatic sphere to the equivalent strong charge one spin sphere.

From equation (1.6) the fine structure of the proton and neutron can also be determined. First the equation is solved for alpha:

(1.9)

Substituting e_{pmax}2 for e_{emax}2 we get the values for the fine structure of the proton (p) and neutron (n).

(1.10)

(1.11)

The neutron has a fine structure constant just as the proton and electron do even though the charge is neutral. The point is, even though the charge is neutral, it still has an electrostatic charge based on a proton that has bound to an electron. Whether the charge is positive, negative or neutral does not change the nature of the electrostatic charge.

The mechanics of strong charge can be carried over to the proton and neutron.

Planck's constant is the angular momentum of an electron. Similar constants can be derived for the neutron and proton. In the case of the proton the angular momentum is:

(1.14)

where h_{p} is equal to the angular momentum of the proton, m_{p} is the mass of the proton, c is the speed of light and λ_{C} is the Compton wavelength. Similarly, the angular momentum of the neutron is:

(1.15)

where h_{n} denotes the angular momentum of the neutron and m_{n} is the mass of the neutron. The values of these angular momenta are:

(1.16)

(1.17)

The reader will note that the above values for proton and neutron angular momentum differ from the values given by NIST (interestingly, NIST has subsequently deleted values of the proton and neutron angular momenta from their web site). This is one of a few units the Aether Physics Model disagrees with the Standard Model over.

The rationale for using the above units for proton and neutron angular momentum is that the Aether appears to have just one quantum length and just one quantum frequency. The masses of the proton and neutron as given by NIST are not disputed.

When calculating the maximum charge for the proton and neutron in terms of elementary charge as in equation (1.5) we obtain the following values:

e_{pmax} = (1.18)

e_{nmax} = (1.19)

Both (1.18) and (1.19) result in the relative value of the "strong nuclear force" compared to the elementary charge. In 1994, Robert Mills published "Space Time and Quanta - an introduction to contemporary physics" in which he suggests the strong nuclear force is an electromagnetic force. Equations (1.18) and (1.19) offer evidence to support his theory. A brief overview of this theory can be found at PHYSICS MYSTERIES EXPLAINED PART III.

The Aether Physics Model began unexpectedly in February 2002 when David Thomson was experimenting with Tesla coils. While holding a fluorescent tube between the ground terminal and top terminal of a large flat spiral Tesla coil, two distinctly different manifestations of charges were observed. The photo below is the actual observation that led to the Aether Physics Model.

The question of how the charges were formed was not as interesting as the question of why there were two distinctly different manifestations of charges at all. According to established physics theories, there is supposed to be only one type of charge, the electrostatic charge. The magnetic force is believed to be the relativistic effect of electrostatic charge. If there is just one type of charge, why does it have two distinct manifestations? Also, what exactly is charge?

This observation led the author to reexamine the foundations of physics. Could something have been missed? As this web site, our white paper, and our book explain, yes, modern physics missed the opportunity to explain the entire quantum structure in simple Newtonian type expressions of Classical physics by not discovering the two types of charges.

Other Tesla coil builders were able to duplicate the effect, although they refused to accept the quantified interpretation presented by the Aether Physics Model. Below is the photographic result of a similar experiment performed by Antonio Carlos M. de Queiroz:

In all the above experiments, there are two distinct manifestations of charges. One type of charge (electrostatic) manifests as a thin purple streamer and the other type of charge (electromagnetic) manifests as a thick white streamer. Even nature demonstrates two different manifestations of charges as seen in this dramatic photo from Oklahoma Lightning:

The Aether Physics Model gives a very discrete and coherent understanding of charge.

All of the above concepts concerning charge are explained in greater detail and with more visual aids in our book, "Secrets of the Aether."