## What is the Aether?

The Aether is the non-material structure of space. Just as oceans are seas of water molecules, the Aether (fabric of space) is a sea of Aether units.

The Aether unit is simply quantified as $$16\pi^{2}$$ times the Coulomb electrostatic constant:

\begin{equation}\label{Aether_unit}A_{u}=16\pi^{2}\cdot k_{C}\end{equation}

To understand the Aether unit, we need to understand $$16\pi^{2}$$ and Coulomb's electrostatic force constant.

## The Curvature Constants

Just as $$2\pi$$ is the curvature constant for a circle, $$4\pi$$ is the curvature constant for a sphere, and $$4\pi^{2}$$ is the curvature constant for a toroid, $$16\pi^{2}$$ is the curvature constant for a double loxodrome, as in the image on the right. Cone Steradian Wedge SteradianThere are multiple manifestations of $$16\pi^{2}$$ just as there are multiple manifestations of $$4\pi$$ and $$4\pi^{2}$$. For example, the reciprocal of $$4\pi$$ is a steradian, which can be seen relative to a sphere as either a cone or as a wedge. (See the images on the left.)

A toroid is geometrically equivalent to a tubular cardioid. Toroids can be wide and thin, narrow and thick, and even a sphere is a particular case of a toroid where the small radius is larger than the large radius. Two Toroids with the Same Surface Area

In the case of the Aether unit, $$16\pi^{2}$$ also manifests as two adjacent spheres. The two $$16\pi^{2}$$ geometries nest within each other: There is a reason that both the two-sphere manifestation of $$16\pi^{2}$$ and the double loxodrome image are shown together in the Aether unit. The two-sphere expression applies to electrostatic charge, which has spherical geometry. The dual loxodrome manifestation of $$16\pi^{2}$$ applies to the magnetic charges of the four subatomic particles. These four subatomic particles are the electron, proton, positron, and antiproton. They reside in their spin positions within the Aether unit, as indicated by the four different colored sections of the double loxodrome. Only one subatomic particle may occur in a given Aether unit.

Each of the four sections of the double loxodrome has the geometrical constant of $$4\pi^{2}$$ which is the geometry of a toroid, or tubular cardioid. Notice that $$4\times 4\pi^{2}=16\pi^{2}$$. If we look down from the top of the Aether unit at a single spin position, such as the electron position, it would appear as a tubular cardioid. Tubular Cardioid Electron

The $$16\pi^{2}$$ geometrical constant is a vital component of the Aether unit structure; the Coulomb electrostatic constant adds physical characteristics to the Aether geometry.

## The Coulomb Electrostatic Force Constant

The Aether may be non-material, but it nonetheless has physical properties. We know that space has a constant speed of photons $$c$$, which coincides with the observation that photons always travel at only one speed through space. Photons never accelerate or decelerate; photons either exist as moving at velocity $$c$$, or they do not exist. We know space has a conductance constant of $$Cd$$, which means space can conduct an electric charge. We know that space has a permeability constant $$\mu_{0}$$, which means that space carries inductance equivalent to one coil turn per quantum length. We know that space has a permittivity constant $$\epsilon_{0}$$, which means that space carries the quantum electrostatic charge of the Aether per quantum length. These physical qualities of space work together to give us the Coulomb electrostatic force constant:

\begin{equation}k_{C}=c\cdot Cd\frac{\mu_{0}}{\epsilon_{0}}\end{equation}

Taken together as in equation (\ref{Aether_unit}), we have a fully quantified Aether unit.

## The Aether Unit

When constructed, the Aether unit has four spin positions for the subatomic particles within a double sphere of electrostatic polarities. The electrostatic polarity of the subatomic particle depends on which quadrant of the Aether unit the subatomic particle resides. To better understand the Aether unit, let us see how the Aether unit arises from the Singularity.

Physicists have come to accept singularities in physics due to the success of Albert Einstein's General Relativity theory. The "Big Bang" is a popularized version of a physics creation theory where all physical matter popped into existence at a finite point in time and space. As telescopes improve their accuracy, the idea of the Universe popping into existence from a single event becomes less and less likely.

Mathematically, we can work backward from the known physical constants of the physical Universe and uncover clues to the actual creation process of material existence. Starting with Planck's constant for the angular momentum of an electron ("quantum of action" in mainstream physics), we can determine the quantum length and quantum frequency. Since we know Planck's constant is directly involved with the physics of the electron, we can factor the mass component as the mass of the electron. And since we know the angular momentum spins at the speed of photons, we can also factor out the speed c to give us the quantum length:

\begin{equation}\frac{h}{m_{e}\cdot c}=\lambda_{C}\end{equation}

where $$\lambda_{C}$$ turns out to be the Compton wavelength. And since we know the speed c is the speed limit of the Aether unit, as we uncovered in factoring Coulomb's electrostatic constant, we can determine a quantum frequency of the Aether as:

\begin{equation}F_{q}=\frac{c}{\lambda_{C}}\end{equation}

## The Limits of the Aether

Gravity is a force that takes place through space, and therefore gravity is a force of the Aether just as the electrostatic force is a force of the Aether. Factoring out the quantum length and quantum frequency from the Newton gravitational constant $$G$$:

\begin{equation}\frac{{\lambda_{C}}^{3}\cdot {F_{q}}^{2}}{G}=m_{a}\end{equation}

Where $$m_{a}$$ is the maximum amount of mass an Aether unit can contain. From this, we can determine the total amount of magnetic charge an Aether unit can hold:

\begin{equation}\frac{m_{a}\cdot {\lambda_{C}}^{3}\cdot {F_{q}}^{2}}{A_{u}}={e_{a}}^{2}\end{equation}

## The Gforce

And now, we can calculate the Gforce that gives rise to the fundamental force constants. The Gforce is a reciprocal force. It is the maximum force possible in a given Aether unit. The gravitational expression of Gforce is equal to:

\begin{equation}G\frac{{m_{a}}^{2}}{{\lambda_{C}}^{2}}=Gforce\end{equation}

And the magnetic charge expression of Gforce is equal to:

\begin{equation}A_{u}\frac{{e_{a}}^{2}}{{\lambda_{C}}^{2}}=Gforce\end{equation}

Because we know that dark matter exists, we could expect dark matter to show up in physics. A possible solution for dark matter is that a Singularity split to produce vibrating strings of mass and the Gforce:

\begin{equation}1=\frac{m_{a}\cdot \lambda_{C}\cdot {F_{q}}^{2}}{Gforce}\end{equation}

where dark matter is the vibrating (resonating) strings of mass.

The Gforce thus gives us the Newton gravitational constant and the Aether magnetic constant:

\begin{equation}G=Gforce\frac{{\lambda_{C}}^{2}}{{m_{a}}^{2}}\end{equation}

\begin{equation}A_{u}=Gforce\frac{{\lambda_{C}}^{2}}{{e_{a}}^{2}}\end{equation}

and because we can substitute equation(\ref{Aether_unit}) for $$A_{u}$$ we can express the Coulomb electrostatic force constant as:

\begin{equation}k_{C}=Gforce\frac{{\lambda_{C}}^{2}}{16\pi^{2}{e_{a}}^{2}}\end{equation}

which demonstrates the force constants are unified to a common factor, as expected by Albert Einstein.

## The Two Types of Charges

Just as the $$Gforce$$ arises from a split in the Singularity, so also do the two types of charges arise from the Singularity:

\begin{equation}1=\frac{e^{2}}{8\pi a\cdot {e_{a}}^{2}}\end{equation}

Where $$a=2.034\times 10^{-48}$$, and is the Aether fine structure, as opposed to the electron fine structure $$\alpha$$, the Aether's fine structure is very close to zero.

## The Concept of Zero

The concept of zero helps to understand what physical reality is. The split in the Singularity gave forth duality. The duality comprises a quantum Aether unit, oscillating in the quantum momentum (present moment). There is a forward time direction, and then there is a backward time direction. Physical matter sees only the half-spin forward time direction of subatomic particles. However, the present moment makes no progress toward the past or the future; the positive direction of time balances with the negative direction of time, and the net temporal gain is zero.

The Aether unit also produces a positive and negative electrostatic sphere, which also oscillates at the quantum frequency; the net charge of the Aether with its positive and negative charge is again zero.

As well documented by physicists, matter annihilates antimatter when they come into contact, resulting in zero physical matter and two photons. Similarly, two photons can collide to produce zero photons and an electron-positron pair.

The concept of zero is the basis of conservation laws. All aspects of physics are conserved. Electric and magnetic charge, physical matter, quantum frequency, and space must be conserved. The Singularity can produce all the "dark matter - Gforce," and all the "electrostatic charge - magnetic charge" it wants, as evidenced by the expanding Universe; but once created, there must always be a net zero balance between the dualistic pairs.

## The Nature of Linear Time

Visible matter appears to endure in just one direction; from the past to the future. We call this phenomenon "entropy" or "linear time." However, this apparent duration of physical matter is essentially an illusion. The only physical aspect of the enduring physical matter exists in the present moment. Physical matter sees only half the present moment. Our physical body constructs from physical matter, and the physical body only perceives within the present moment. There is no part of the body's physiology or of any type of measuring equipment, that physically experiences the past or the future.

However, the physical body has a unique organ called the brain, particularly the hippocampus of the brain. The hippocampus works in the present moment and creates memories of the body's physical stimuli, stores these memories, and recalls these memories. It is the ability of the hippocampus that gives us the perception of linear time. Linear time is no more physical than the Doppler effect, rainbows, or Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Linear time is nothing more than a mental perception we experience in the present moment.

## Summary of the Aether

The Aether arises from the Singularity (one) and yet continually oscillates at the quantum frequency with the conservation result of zero. The Aether is created by the Gforce from the "dark matter - Gforce" duality acting upon the magnetic charge of the "electrostatic and magnetic charge" duality, which then becomes the environment in which physical matter exists. New Aether units and subatomic particles are created when dark matter is absorbed into a newly created Aether unit via the Casimir effect and nuclear fission/fusion; which causes the physical Universe to expand.

The physical "edge" of the Universe is actually at the centers of galaxies, known as "black holes." Black holes represent the maximum length density ($$\frac{m_{a}}{\lambda_{C}}$$) that results in a curl of 1 in the Aether and represents mathematically as:

\begin{equation}\label{black_hole}G\frac{m_{a}}{\lambda_{C}}=curl\cdot A_{u}\end{equation}

Equation (\ref{black_hole}) is the Black Hole equation, which provides a famous equation by Albert Einstein that calculates the circular deflection angle for straight path trajectories near massive objects. In the case for our Sun, the equation is given as:

\begin{equation}G\frac{2m_{sun}}{r_{sun}}=8.493\times 10^{-6}\frac{curl}{2}A_{u}\end{equation}

where $$curl$$ is a unit equal in MKS units to $$6.333\times 10^{4}\frac{coul^{2}}{kg\cdot m}$$ and the value of $$\frac{curl}{2}$$ is given in radians.